Glossary of Ingredients

A basic guide to the active ingredients found in today’s fat burning supplements as well as common fat burning terms.

The following information is disclosed as true to the best of our knowledge. Since nutritional supplements are not considered drugs in the United States, none of the products we sell or ingredients listed here are approved, observed, evaluated or warranted by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA - The governing body that regulates all food and drug information and products in the United States). Please consult with your licensed health care practitioner before beginning any weight-loss regimen or consuming any nutritional supplement, especially when combining with a prescribed or un-prescribed drug regimen.

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


1R, 2S Norephedrine - See ephedrine derivatives.

1S, 2R Norephedrine - See ephedrine derivatives.

7-Keto - (Also 3-Acetyl-7-Oxo-[Dehydroepiandrosterone]) A metabolite of the compound DHEA, with the same positive effects (increased enthusiasm, stamina, concentration, focus, and enjoyment of life) but without the risks of side effects related to DHEA’s conversion into the sex steroids (testosterone and estrogen). Allows for the safe recapture of the "positive energy" associated with youth while helping to prevent age-related weight gain, loss of energy, depression, reduction in immune function and memory loss.


Alfalfa ­ (Also Mendicago Sativa; Lucerne) A papilionaceous plant of Europe and Asia (means “father of all foods” in Arab), having compound leaves with three leaflets and clusters of small purplish flowers. The parts of the plant that are usually used are its leaves, which are rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and vitamins A, B-12, C, D, E and K. Alfalfa has also been found to contain all eight essential amino acids, as well as fluoride which can help prevent tooth decay. Alfalfa is one of the highest fibrous herbs in existence and we are unable to digest its raw leaves. For centuries, Native Americans ground its seeds to be used as flour or boiled its leaves and ate them like greens. It is widely cultivated for forage and used as a commercial source of chlorophyll.


Apium Graveolens - (Also Celery; Wild celery; Celeriac; Apium Graveolens Dulce) A Eurasian plant whose blanched leafstalks are used in salads or cooked as a vegetable. A benefit of the seed, oil extract, and consumption of the plant include increase in skin tone, anti-inflammation and provides diuretic properties.

Appetite Suppression - Many stimulants and fat burning products keep your appetite at bay while they stimulate your body to work in other ways. When your body’s muscles are stimulated to work overtime to lift, run, or do any kind of external activity, this will take energy away from your digestive system, hunger pains, and other internal activity, and you won’t feel like you need to eat as much.

Arbutin -(Also Arbutine; hydroquinone-beta-D-glucopyranoside; 4-hydroxyphenyl-beta-D-pyranoside) One of and the most powerful diuretic of the 3 constituents of the herb bearberry (see also uva-ursi). Also the active constituent in several DEA approved drugs primarily sold in europe (Arctuvan®, Herniol®, Nephronorm®, and Cystinol®). Aids in draining the body of excess water.

Avena Sativa (1x) - Wild oat. As a tonic it is traditionally used as a sexual stimulant for humans and animals. Also used as a treatment for anxiety and mood swings.



Bayberry - (Also Myrica Cerifera) See myrica cerifera.

Bearberry - (Also Uva-Ursi) See uva-ursi.

Beta Sitosterol - (Also B-Sitosterol) A cholesterol lowering phytosterol that occurs naturally in the avocado. It helps inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, resulting in lower blood cholesterol levels. Promising research also indicates that this phytosterol may inhibit the growth of tumors (in animal studies).

Bee Pollen - The male seed of a flower blossom which is gathered from bees (by a process of collection off of the bee's legs at the entrance of the hive). Often referred to as nature's most complete food, it contains approximately 25% complete protein containing at least 18 amino acids, more than a dozen vitamins, 28 minerals, 11 enzymes or co-enzymes, 14 beneficial fatty acids, 11 carbohydrates, rich in hormones and low in calories.

Bergenin - Chemical compound recognized by the department of agriculture and the FDA as an anti-bronchitic and anti-ulcer treatment. Also shown in independent studies to increase the body's metabolism of fat.

Betaine - (Also Betaine HCl; Hydrochloric Acid; Stomach Acid, Trimethylglycine) Functions very closely with choline, folic acid, vitamin B12, and a form of the amino acid methionine (also known as SAMe or S-adenosylmethionine) to aid in proper liver function, cellular replication, and detoxification. Also plays a role in the manufacture of carnitine and serves to protect the kidneys and liver from damage. It is often referred to as a "lipotropic factor" because of its ability to help the liver process fats (lipids). Also showing promise as a dental care compound in its ability to combat dry-mouth.

Bitter Orange - (Also Neroli; Citrus Aurantium, Green Orange; Sour Orange; Zhi Shi) Natural source of synephrine, a powerful stimulant. See synephrine for more information.

Bromelain - One of a group of proteolytic enzymes which are capable of aiding in the digestion of protein. Also useful as an anti-inflammatory treatment.

Buchu - (Also Agathosma Betulina; Diosma Betulina; Bucco; Bookoo; Bucku; Round Buchu; Short Buchu) A small shrub native to the Cape Province in South Africa. The leaf product is collected during the flowering period and used as a urinary antiseptic, diuretic, aromatic, diaphoretic, and stimulant. There is occasional gastrointestinal intolerance associated with the consumption of this ingredient on an empty stomach.

Burdock - (Also Gobo; Lappa; Fox's Clote; Thorny Burr; Beggar's Buttons; Cockle Buttons; Love Leaves; Philanthropium; Personata; Happy Major; Clot-Bur) Native Asian vegetable with a root of high nutritional value, containing the minerals iron, chromium, magnesium, silicon, calcium and potassium. Also a potent blood purifier.



Caffeine - A bitter alkaloid, naturally found in kola nuts. The most widely used stimulant and diuretic in the world..

Carnitine - (Also L-Carnitine; Carnitine HCL) L-carnitine is naturally occuring in the body as the by-product of the combination of the amino acids lysine and methionine. It is necessary for the release of energy from fat, which, in addition to aiding the metabolism of fat for weight-loss regimens, can also be particularly helpful in other treatments such as congestive heart failure situations. Also, research shows that individuals who supplement with carnitine while engaging in an exercise regimen are less likely to experience muscle soreness.

Cascara Sagrada - (Also Sacred Bark) Bark of the medicinal plant Rhamnus Purshiana traditionally and clinically used to treat constipation. Also used to aid in the prevention of other gastrointestinal disorders.

Cayenne Pepper - Made from the dried pods of pungent chili peppers. More commonly used as a spice, but added to fat burning supplements because of its ability to increase the body’s metabolic rate, increase thermogenesis in the body, and supplement the fat burning process.
Chitosan - (Also beta-[1,4]-2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose; beta-1,4-poly-d-glucosamine; Deacetylated Chitin; poly-d-glucosamine; Poliglusam) A fiber derived from shellfish (should not be used by anyone with allergic reactions to shellfish), can be helpful in the lowering of LDL (bad cholesterol and in the raising of HDL (good) cholesterol. Also aids in cell immobilization during the digestive process, helping to carry non-dietary substances found in our meals out of the digestive pathway before entering the bloodstream.

Choline - (Also Lysophosphatidylcholine) A vitamin like compound, essential in the human diet and naturally found in foods such as liver, cauliflower, soybeans, spinach, lettuce, nuts, and eggs. Helps control fat & cholesterol buildup in the body (prevents fat from accumulating in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats in the cells). Helps regulate the kidneys, liver & gallbladder. Important for nerve transmission such as muscle contraction. Helps improve memory.

Chromium Picolinate - (Also Chromium Polynicotinate) Deficiency is very rare, and supplementation of this compound has been found to be of no benefit. In some cases, animal studies have shown that supplementation of this compound may be detrimental because of its ability to possibly mutate DNA and alter genetic material when combined with other common anti-oxidants such as vitamin C. Preliminary studies have shown that this compound may lower blood sugar levels in diabetic patients, yet the risks far outweigh any benefit.

Chrysin - (Also 5,7-dihydroxyflavone) A naturally occurring isoflavone chemically extracted from the plant Passiflora coerulea and also found in honeycomb. Helps prevent the conversion of testosterone to estrogen (aromatization), a common occurrence when supplementing with testosterone.

Citrus Aurantium - (Also Bitter Orange) See bitter orange.

Commiphora Mukul - (Usually extracted for Guggulsterones) See guggulsterones.

Corsilk - (Also Dried Corn Silk Extract) An efficient diuretic. Also aids the bladder, kidneys, and small intestine in opening and keeping the urinary tract clean.

Cytochrome C - (Also Cytochrome C Oxidase; Cytochrome Peroxidase) An essential, naturally occurring protein found in most cells. Performs an essential step in the production of cellular energy, such as the production of ATP for energy during workouts.



Daidzein - See Isoflavones.

Damiana - (Also Turnera Aphrodisiaca) A small shrub with aromatic leaves found throughout Mexico, Central and South America and the West Indies. Often associated with improving sexual function in both males and females, a mild antidepressant, diuretic, treatment for coughs and as a mild laxative. The structure of the plant suggests that the plant may have a positive, testosterone-like effect on the sexual organs.

Dandelion - (Also Taraxacum Officinale) The roots are primarily used as an appetite stimulant and digestive aid while dandelion leaves are used as a diuretic to stimulate the excretion of urine. A rich source of vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, as well as minerals such as iron, potassium, and zinc. Its leaves are also often used to add flavor to salads, sandwiches, and teas. The roots can be found in some coffee substitutes and the flowers are used to make certain wines.

Diuresis - The process of removing excess water from the body. Many stimulants and other nutrients may trigger the kidneys to squeeze out any water they may be retaining, as well as help your body mobilize water through and out of your system (also from under your skin and in other organs).

DMAE - (Also 2-dimethylaminoethanol) Suggested as a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the brain helpful with memory. Provides similar effects as choline.

DMG - (Also Dimethylglycine) A form of amino acid found in low levels in meats, seeds, and grains. Used by athletes to improve endurance and performance, enhance oxygen utilization, and improve recovery after strenuous exercise. Also very helpful in improving immune system functions and strengthen the cardiovascular system.

Doggrass - (Also Couchgrass; Twitch) A weed openly found on waste grounds and farms. Contains antibiotic ingredients which help clean and treat the urinary tract, increase production and effectiveness of urine excretion, and treat damaged liver. Also found to have anti-inflammatory qualities.

Dong Quai - (Also Angelica sinensis; Chinese Angelica [not angelica root or seed]; Dang Gui; Danngui; Dong Qua; Tang Kuei; Tan Kue Bai Zhi) A plant found in the mountainous regions of China, Korea, and Japan. Although definitive studies on humans are weak, some studies have shown alleviation of constipation, treatment of menstrual disorders, increase in red blood cell counts, reduction of pain, treatment of abnormal heart rhythm, and protection of the liver.



E/C/A Stack - (Also The Thermogenic Cocktail) The consumption of ephedrine, caffeine, and aspirin to create a thermogenic environment in the body. The ephedrine creates the direct thermogenesis, the caffeine gives the body extra energy, and the aspirin helps boost the effect of stimulants while preventing the body from being accustomed and un-affected by the stimulants.

EGCG - (Also Epigallocatechin gallate) Naturally found in green tea, and the most potent antioxidant polyphenols of green tea. Has antioxidant (100 more times more effective than vitamin C and 25 times more effective than vitamin E.), antitumor and antimutagenic properties.

Eleuthero - (Also Siberian Ginseng [Not Panax Ginseng]; Eleutherococcus Senticosus, Eleutheroside) A thorny shrub native to East Russia, Northeast China, Korea, and Japan. Clinical studies performed in Russia have found eleuthero root to be an adaptogen (A substance that helps the body adapt to stresses of various kinds). Also, according to observed constituents, eleuthero root has been associated with antioxidant, anti-cancer, hypocholesterolemic, immunomodulatory, immunostimulatory, radioprotectant, anti-pyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. See also siberian ginseng.

Ephedra - (Also Epitonin; Ma Huang; Ephedra Vulgaris) A plant/flower native to West Central China, Southern Siberia, and Japan. Extracted for the salt alkaloid ephedrine, which is a sympathetic nerve stimulant resembling adrenaline. Also helps in relieving swelling of the mucous membrane. It has valuable antispasmodic properties, acts on the air passages and is used in treatment of asthma, hay fever, rheumatism, and low blood pressure (in cases of influenza, pneumonia, etc.). See also ephedrine.

Ephedrine - Basic derivative from the ephedra plant, with moderate thermogenic properties and some derivatives.

Norephedrine - Derivative of ephedrine, with less effect on the brain causing less noticeable wired feeling, yet a more potent thermogenic.

1S, 2R Norephedrine - Least potent derivative of ephedrine causing less thermogenic stimulation than basic ephedrine.

1R, 2S Norephedrine - Most potent ephedrine derivative, causing the highest amount of thermogenesis, most anorectic (appetite suppressant), yet the least detrimental to the nervous system.

Equisetonin - (Also Horsetail; Field Horsetail; Equisetum) An extract of the ancient, primitive horsetail herb. A potent diuretic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hemorrhage treatment.



Forskohlin - (Also Coleus Forskohlin [plant]; C. Forskohilii) Derivative of the Coleus Forskohlin perennial plant from India, Burma, and Thailand. An activator of the enzyme “adenylate cyclase” which is involved in the production of “Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate” or “cAMP” a significant biochemical agent involved in metabolic processes and which is a major component of the high energy molecule ATP (Adenosine triphosphate).

Fisetin - A naturally occurring bioflavanoid which aids in the mobilization of fat burning enzymes in the body’s fat cells. Works synergistically with other bioflavanoids and epinephrine on affecting the beta-receptors which induce a fat burning environment in the body.

Fenugreek - (Also Trigonella foenum-graecum; Greek Hay) A 2 - 3 feet tall annual herb native to Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, and Western Asia. A high fiber plant which is rich in many vitamins, minerals, and proteins. One of the many medicinal uses of the seed has been to decrease blood sugar and other harmful fats in the blood, as well as help insulin-dependent diabetics.



Gamma Oryzanol - A natural component of rice bran, corn, and barley oils. Supplementation of this substance has been shown to increase testosterone, stimulate the release of endorphins, and promote the growth of lean muscle tissue.

Garcinia Cambogia - (Usually extracted for HCA) A small, pumpkin-like fruit native to Southeast Asia. Serves as an appetite suppressant, limiter of the production of fatty acids and cholesterol in the body, and helps increase body temperature to create a better fat burning environment in the body. Also see HCA.

Genistein - See Isoflavones.

Ginger - (Root, standardized for gingerols) A rhizome of the herb “Zingiber Officionale” native to the southwest coast of India and the Malabar Coast. Included in many fat burning products for its properties as a colon cleanser, ability to reduce spasms and cramps, stimulate circulation, and aid in metabolism. Also a very effective treatment for motion sickness, fever, and colds.

Gingerols - One of the pungent ingredients in Ginger (along with shagaols) associated with ginger’s anti-nausea and anti-vomiting effects. See ginger.

Ginkgo Biloba - (Also Ginkgo Tree) A plant with fan-shaped leaves (which are used to extract) native to China, Korea, and Japan yet found all over the world. Can grow up to 40 meters tall and live for 1,000 years. One of the most widely used herbal treatments, used to improve cognitive functions such as memory, learning ability, mood, and alertness.

Ginseng - Mainly a root plant, grown all around the world in hard wood forests. Powder or extract of the root serves as a potent adaptogen (Normalizing effect on body functions and helps improve general energy and vitality, particularly during times of high fatigue or stress). Also see American, Asian, and Siberian Ginseng.

Ginseng, American - (Also Panax Quinquefolius) Same effects as Asian Ginseng and closely related, yet preferred when milder treatment is required.

Ginseng, Asian - (Also Panax, Oriental, Chinese, or Korean Ginseng) The most common Ginseng used and the most potent.

Ginseng, Siberian - (Also Eleuthero) Weakest of the Ginseng family but with similar effects. Also see eleuthero.

Goldenseal - A Native American bright-yellow medicinal plant with a reputation for treating gastric and genitourinary disorders and useful as a natural anti-biotic.

Gotu Kola - (Also Indian Pennywort; Marsh Penny; Water Pennywort) A slim, long plant with fan-shaped leaves found in the swampy areas of India, Sri-Lanka, Madagascar, and other tropical areas. Popularly used for nerve relaxation, cleansing of the blood, and enhancement of memory.

Green Tea - (Also Japanese, and Chinese Green Tea) Most widely consumed natural drink in the world next to water. Tea of a native Japanese and Chinese leaf plant usually consumed in the form of a typical tea or extracted for caffeine and EGCG (See also Caffeine and EGCG). Also, the polyphenols in Green Tea have been found to improve immune system, detoxify the blood, and promote good health.

Guarana - (Also Guarinine) A woody vine that grows along trees and native to the Amazon/South American area. Extracted for caffeine. See also caffeine.

Guggulipid - (Also Forms E and Z Guggulsterones; Guggul; Gum-Guggul; Indian Bedellium; and Guggulow) An extract and standardization from the plant “commiphora mukul” shown to decrease triglycerides (bad fats) and LDL (bad cholesterol) levels, while increasing HDL (good cholesterol) levels in humans, according to clinical trials performed in India in 1989.



HCA - (Also Hydroxycitric acid, hydroxycitrate) An extract of the rind of the fruit of the Garcinia Cambogia tree (See also Garcinia Cambogia). The acid extract is very similar to citric acid found naturally in many citrus fruits. Helps modify the body’s metabolism to prevent the body from turning carbohydrates into fat, and also curbs appetite.

Hops - Flower used in fat burning supplements to induce a better fat burning environment in the body by way of use of bitter elements.

Horny Goat Weed - (Also Epimedium Sagittatum; Epimedium Brevicornum; usually extracted for icariin) Native plant of China and Japan with clinically proven aphrodisiac properties. Helps increase libido, testosterone, and sexual drive. Also used for treating kidneys, joints, and liver.

Horsetail - (Also Equisetonin) See equisetonin.

Hydrangea - (Wild Hydrangea; Seven Barks; Hydrangea Vulgaris; Common Hydrangea) Native North American plant used as a diuretic, cathartic, and tonic. Also helpful in removing gravelly deposits in the bladder, and diminish the pain associated with stones.



Inositol - (Also Inositol Monophosphate) A non-essential nutrient but fundamental part of cell membranes. Necessary for proper function of nerves, brain and muscles in the body. Works in conjunction with B-vitamins, choline, betaine, and methionine to prevent accumulation of fats in the liver. Also aids in the breakdown of fats, reduction of “bad” cholesterol, and also helps thinning hair.
Ipriflavone - A synthetic flavanoid (Isoflavone) derived from the soy compound “daidzin”, helpful in preventing breakdown of bones and bone absorption of calcium, therefore added to many female-based fat burning products which may deplete minerals in the body. See also isoflavones.
Isoflavones - (Also 5-methy-7-methoxy-isoflavones; 7-isopropoxyisoflavone; Daidzein; Genistein) A phytochemical nutrient (non-vitamin or mineral) found in soy products which contain anti-oxidant and estrogenic properties.


Juniper Berries - (Also Genévrier; Ginepro; Enebro; Gemeiner Wachholder) Berries of a small shrub widely found in the northern hemisphere. Used as a stimulant diuretic, stomachic (aids in stomach problems), and to treat some kidney and liver diseases.



Ketogenesis (or Keto for short) - The process in which excess acetyl CoA from fatty acid oxidation is converted into ketone bodies. Ketogenesis usually occurs in diabetics, or when there is not enough insulin in the body and it must begin burning fat for energy. (See also ketone bodies)

Ketone Bodies - (NOT ketones) Molecules formed from fat when cells do not have enough available carbohydrate to break down fat completely.

Ketones - Organic compounds that contain a chemical group consisting of C==O (a carbon-oxygen double bond) bound to two hydrocarbons. Ketones are created when there is not enough insulin in the body and it must break down fat for energy.

Kola nut - (Also Cola Acuminata; Sterculia Acuminata; Kola Seeds; Gurru Nuts; Bissy Nuts; Cola Seeds; Guru Nut) Seeds taken from a tall, flowering tree native to Western Africa and also found in the West Indies and Brazil. Same properties as caffeine and the seed is often extracted for its caffeine content. See also caffeine.



Lecithin - An essential fatty acid found in the body in the cell membranes but not naturally occurring (must be derived from the diet). Supplementation also improves the intra-cellular metabolism of nutrients and fats.

Lipolysis - The breakdown of free fatty acids and glycerol in the body, the pre-cursor for burning the fat.

Lipotropics - Substances that prevent an abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver.

Liver Bovine - (Also Caperase; Equilase; Optidase) Used in some fat burning supplements because of its natural clenbuterol content, which can be extracted from liver bovine tissue.

Lysine - (Also L-Lysine) An essential amino acid needed for growth and to maintain a positive nitrogen balance in the body. Also can be used to prevent cold sores and herpes outbreaks.



Methionine - (Also L-Methionine; DL-Methylionine) An essential amino acid needed for growth and proper metabolism. Also a lipotropic nutrient, which aids the liver in processing fats.

Mate - (Also Yerba Mate) See yerba mate.

Myrica Cerifera - (Also Bayberry; Candle Berry; Myrica; Wax Myrtle) Plant found mostly along the North American Atlantic coast and used for its root bark and wax. The wax is used for its astringent, slightly narcotic and stimulant properties in fat burning products.

Ma-Huang - (Also Ephedra; Ephedrine; Usually extracted for Ephedrine) See ephedra.



Naringin - (Usually extracted from grapefruit) A flavanoid compound found in grapefruit which gives it its bitter taste. Studies have shown that this compound has helped prevent the breakdown of some drugs and caffeine during the digestive process, thus allowing more of the drug or caffeine to enter the bloodstream and increase its effectiveness.

Norephedrine - See ephedrine derivatives.

Norsynephrine - (Also Octopamine) Stimulator of beta-3 receptors which are found on brown adipose tissue which, when stimulated, increase overall thermogenesis in the body.



Octacosanol - A waxy substance found naturally in wheat germ and other plant oils, and sugar cane. Serves as an ergogenic (exercise performance enhancer).

Octopamine - (Also Norsynephrine, Octopamine HCL) See norsynephrine



PABA - (Also Para-aminobenzoic Acid) A non-essential nutrient in humans which has been found to enhance the effects of cortisone (helping joint treatment), and may help prevent the accumulation of abnormal tissue around joints and organs.

Papain - An enzyme derived from the Papaya fruit. Has a mild, soothing effect on the stomach and aids in digestion. Used in some fat burning supplements due to the harsh effects these products sometimes have on digestion.

Petroselinum - (Also Petroselinum Crispum, Neapolitanum, and Tuberosum; Parsley) An edible plant used for it’s high vitamin content (more rich in vitamin C than an orange, high in vitamin A, several B vitamins, calcium, and iron), and its ability to ameliorate strong odors.

Phenylalanine - (Also L-Phenylalanine, [LPA]; D-Phenylalanine, [DPA]; DLPA [Combination of both derivatives]; Phenylethylamine [by product in the body]) Amino acids which convert (in the body) to other chemicals which may help elevate mood, increase sensation, and treat depression.

Phytochemicals - (Also Phytonutrients) Chemicals produced by plants that may have health-related benefits such as a boost in immune system and prevention of some cancers, yet are not considered essential nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins, or proteins). These chemicals give plants their color, taste, and smell.

Pinoyella - Former name of Trichophyton, a fungi extracted for its ephedrine content. The fungus itself is dangerous when consumed or contacted in its natural state.

Psyllium Husk/Seeds - Harvested from the plantago psyllium and p. ovata (more commonly called plantain) plants (not the plantain fruit), native to India and the Middle East, these seeds and their husks have long been used to ease constipation and treat digestive system upset. Used in some fat burning supplements due to the harsh effects these products sometimes have on digestion.

Pyridoxine - (Also Vitamin B6) A vital, water soluble vitamin required for the balancing of hormonal changes in women, as well as assisting the immune system and the growth of new cells. It is also used in the processing and metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, while assisting with controlling your mood as well as your behavior.

Pyruvate - (Also Calcium Pyruvate) A carbohydrate found naturally in red apples, various cheeses, and red wine. Helps increase cellular respiration and energy production, which in turn may help burn more fat while increasing endurance and preventing the usual muscle loss associated with fat burning regimens.



Quercetin - A phytoestrogen, flavanoid (water soluble plant pigment) compound with anti-histamine, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.



Ribose - A unique, 5-carbon, naturally occurring sugar that is the beginning component of the body’s production of ATP (the body’s main source of energy). It also makes up the carbohydrate portion of DNA and RNA, the building blocks of any living organism.

Royal Jelly - An extremely thick, nutrient dense, white, creamy liquid secreted by the hypopharyngeal glands of Queen Bees. It is a rich source of proteins (contains 8 amino acids), important fatty acids, sterols, phosphorous compounds, and acetylcholine (needed by the body to transmit nerve messages from cell to cell). Also contains vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, copper, iron, phosphorous, potassium, silicon, sulfur, and is especially dense in B vitamins.



Salicin - (Also Salicinum; White Willow Bark) See salicylic acid.

Salicylic Acid - (Also acetyl-salicylic acid; 2-hydroxybenzoic acid; C6H4 (OH)CO2H) A beta-hydroxy acid extracted from the bark of the willow tree (see also white willow bark). Used in some fat burning products for its ability to react with acids to form acetylsalicylic acid (an alternative for aspirin - i.e. in some ephedrine/caffeine/aspirin stacks). Also used otherwise for its preservative, antiseptic, and antipyretic properties, as well as an external astringent.

Salvia Sclarea - (Also Sage Clary [plant]) Native plant of Syria, Italy, southern France and Switzerland, but cultivates anywhere with dry soil. A powder of the dried roots has been thought to be an activator of the enzyme “adenylate cyclase” which is involved in the production of “Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate” or “cAMP” (a significant biochemical agent involved in metabolic processes and which is a major component of the high energy molecule ATP [Adenosine Triphosphate]).

Sarsaparilla - (Also Smilax Medica; Red-bearded Sarsaparilla; and also named after the region it is derived, i.e. Mexican Sarsaparilla) Traditionally used for many diseases, such as syphilis, rheumatism, and asthma (via smoke administration), also used as a diuretic and diaphoretic (increases sweat). Contains saponins which facilitate the absorption of other drugs and phytochemicals, increasing their effectiveness. Also contains plant steroids which are sometimes falsely advertised as actual steroids, yet nothing has ever been documented that indicates that plant steroids convert into testosterone or estrogen in the body. May be irritable to the stomach if consumed in large amounts.

Saw Palmetto - (Dwarf Palm Tree) A type of palm tree used for the oil in its berries, which contain fatty acids (caproic, lauric and palmitic) and sterols (plant fats with anti-inflammatory properties). Uses for this compound include the inhibition of the negative effects of testosterone on the prostate, counteracting the effects of oestrogen and progesterone and controlling testosterone levels, thus strengthening the male reproductive system.

Schizonepeta - (Also Jing Jie) Native Chinese herb that promotes circulation of the blood, settles the stomach, lowers blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels, and serves as an astringent and diuretic.

Selenium - (Also Selenomethionine or Selenium L-methionine [a more absorbable version]) An essential trace element for animals and humans. An essential part of an enzyme called glutathione peroxidase (GPX) which protects red blood cells and cell membranes against free radicals.

Senna - An herb native to Egypt, Nubia, Arabia, and Sennar. Used for Relieving constipation, a diuretic, and helping to produce bowel movement.

Shogaols - One of the pungent ingredients in Ginger (along with gingerols) associated with ginger’s anti-nausea and anti-vomiting effects. See ginger.

Short Buchu - Shrubby plant native to South Africa. The leaves can be used as a mild diuretic and a mild stimulant.

Smilagenin - A plant steroid found in sarsaparilla (see also sarsaparilla) often falsely marketed as an actual anabolic steroid. There has been no documentation indicating that this plant steroid (or others) has an anabolic effect alone, or that they convert to testosterone or estrogen in the body.

Smilax - (Also Sarsaparilla) See sarsaparilla.

Spirulina - (Also Blue-Green Algae) A blue-green algae containing 18 out of 22 amino acids and all of the essential amino acids and a wide range of valuable nutrients. It is also 70% digestible as opposed to meat and other sources of protein, due to its digestive enzyme content.

St. John’s Wort - A yellow-flowered herb native to Europe and Asia. The bitter, astringent, and balsamic powder of its flowers is found to be a potent anti-depression treatment. Included in some fat burning supplements because of its ability to provide the user with a feeling of well-being, good health, and natural energy.

Synephrine - The main ingredient in bitter orange (or Citrus Aurantium). Has a similar effect as ephedrine (energy booster, appetite suppressor, increases metabolic rate and caloric expenditure) yet without the negative effects on the central nervous system.



Taurine - A non-essential amino acid that functions with glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid as a neuroinhibitory transmitter. It is incorporated into one of the most abundant bile acids, chenodeoxychloic acid, where it serves to break down dietary fats in the intestine, which also helps digestion of the fats.

Theobromine - An alkaloid molecule known as a methylxanthine which naturally occurs in as many as sixty different plant species, including the cocoa tree (source of chocolate). Acts similarly to caffeine (diuretic, stimulant) but less potent. It also relaxes the smooth muscles of the bronchi in the lungs.

Thermogenesis - (Also Thermogenic[s]) The creation of heat in the body be it work-induced (running, walking), physically induced (shivering, covering in blanket), or diet-induced (intake of supplements or heat-inducing foods, or the body’s ability to heat up to help digest a larger meal better). This process is emulated by the use of stimulants and other thermogenic products.

Tyramine - A natural substance found in the body and in many foods, formed as the by-product of protein breakdown. Helps stabilize blood pressure. Known to interact with monoamine oxidase (MAOI) inhibitors leading to dangerous effects. Can also trigger headaches.

Tyrosine - (Also L-Tyrosine, acetyl-L-Tyrosine, 3,5-dilodo-L-Tyrosine, 3-iodo-L-Tyrosine) A naturally occurring amino acid that the body synthesizes from phenylalanine (another amino acid). Serves as a precursor to neurotransmitters in the body, helping to treat mood disorders and also alleviate the negative effects of environmental, psychosocial, and physical stress.


Uva-Ursi - (Also Bearberry; Sprengel) A small shrub herb, found across the greater norther hemisphere. Usually extracted for its Arbutin content (see also arbutin). In addition to its potent diuretic properties, this herb is a good treatment for urinary and kidney problems.



Vanadyl Sulfate - A mineral derived from the trace element Vanadium. Shown to mimic the effects of insulin in the body, which can help shuttle nutrients into the bloodstream faster, increase or stabilize blood sugar levels, increase glycogen storage in muscles, and increase protein synthesis.



White Kidney Bean Extract - A powerful starch neutralizer extracted from the white kidney bean. Its ability to neutralize starch has led it to be used as a “carb blocker”, which can help prevent the effects of carbohydrate intake on weight gain.

White Willow Bark - (Also Salix Alba; Salicin; Salicylic Acid) A large tree with a rough grayish bark, native to central and southern Europe. The bark is used for its small quantity of salicin which converts to salicylic acid in the body (see also salicylic acid). The aspirin like compound has been used since 500 B.C. by Chinese healers and later by Native Americans to control pain, reduce fever, and treat rheumatism. It is commonly used today in fat burning products which require an aspirin like compound (such as the ephedrine/caffeine/aspirin stack) where it may be helpful at preventing the body’s immunity to stimulants and increasing their potency.





Yerba Mate - (Also Mate) A plant containing 196 active chemical compounds, of which many are vitamins, minerals, phytophenols (powerful, plant derived anti-oxidants and anti-cancer compounds) and saponins (powerful immune system stimulants). This plant is widely held as the “better Green Tea”.

Yohimbe - (Also Yohimbine HCL) Native South African tree-like herb with a bark commonly used as an aphrodisiac, to elevate mood, reduce anxiety and depression, increase fatty acid mobilization, and increase mental energy. Usually used with other herbs such as ginseng and saw palmetto to increase its potency. Increases blood pressure. Should not be used with other foods or products that contain tyramine.